Finite Elements Models of the Head in Craniocerebral Trauma – Review

Madalina Maria Diac, Raluca Corina Oprea, Tatiana Iov, Simona Irina Damian, Anton Knieling, Andra Irina Bulgaru Iliescu


Head injuries are a major health and socio-economic problem. To better protect the head against various crash, sport, or fall events, the underlying mechanisms and tolerances need to be investigated. Many investigations have been conducted using cadaver heads, animal heads, physical head models, and in vitro models throughout the world. These experiments, together with the development of computational techniques, have subsequently led to the development of numerical head models, especially finite element (FE) models, to allow more in-depth biomechanical studies. A large number of FE head models have been developed during the years and authors are trying to find the best solutions for a correct explanation of the lesional mechanisms. The finite element method (FEM) is based on the energy formulation of the mechanics of the structures and on approximation methods. It consists of approximating the actual structure through a model consisting of finite elements interconnected in points called nodes. By nodes, each item is under compatibility and balance conditions with adjacent elements. The present paper is a literature review, underlying some of the finite element models, which allowed a good explanation of the head trauma mechanisms.


finite element models; head trauma; forensic applications

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