Drug-Induced Hyperprolactinemia and Hyponatremia - Biological Markers of Unfavorable Evolution in Schizophrenia



Adverse reactions to psychotropic medication can be considered as risk indicators for an unfavorable evolution of patients with schizophrenia, based on particular pathogenic mechanisms that can be used in the personalized therapeutic approach. The combination of antidepressants with antipsychotic drugs in schizophrenia has a risk of synergistic action of excessive blockade of dopamine receptors, which causes hyperprolactinemia. Primary hyponatremia occurs during pregnancy and can be an important marker for signaling neurodevelopmental abnormalities, while secondary hyponatremia has a major clinical dimension and is induced by psychotropic drugs. The pathogenic mechanisms presented can be objectified by neuroimaging examinations that bring benefits in the diagnostic accuracy and re-evaluation of the therapeutic approach, especially in correlation with the severity of biological markers such as prolactin and sodium. The persistence of high prolactin and low sodium levels is an alarm signal that announces a negative evolution of the patient or a major risk of severe cardiac, metabolic, vascular or renal comorbidities. Recognition of pathogenic mechanisms of neurodevelopment, including ventriculomegaly, hyponatremia, focal cortical dysplasia, hippocampal or temporal lobe lesions, in association with a positive history of neonatal or febrile seizures, requires prophylaxis due to high risk of onset of schizophrenia in childhood. Fetal cortical dysplasia is associated with the risk of neonatal seizures. This vulnerability favors the appearance of febrile convulsions or enuresis with changes in brain structure. Enuresis may be an important marker of neurodevelopmental potential for schizophrenia. Neonatal seizures are correlated with hyponatremia and severe hypertension, which appeared in the third trimester of pregnancy, can trigger eclampsia. Neuroimaging monitoring in patients with neurodevelopmental abnormalities, hyperprolactinemia and primary or secondary hyponatremia, acquires a major importance, being able to delimit the boundary between a functional lesion, potentially reversible, with an irreversible lesion.


schizophrenia, hyperprolactinemia, hyponatremia, dopamine, demyelination

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